w3schools    w3Schools
Search W3Schools :
HOME HTML CSS XML JAVASCRIPT ASP PHP SQL MORE...   References Examples Forum About

XML Certification
Download XML editor
Custom Programming
Table of contents
PHP Basic
PHP Intro
PHP Install
PHP Syntax
PHP Variables
PHP String
PHP Operators
PHP If...Else
PHP Switch
PHP Arrays
PHP Looping
PHP Functions
PHP Forms

PHP Advanced
PHP Date
PHP Include
PHP File
PHP File Upload
PHP Cookies
PHP Sessions
PHP E-mail
PHP Secure E-mail
PHP Error
PHP Exception
PHP Filter

PHP Database
MySQL Introduction
MySQL Connect
MySQL Create
MySQL Insert
MySQL Select
MySQL Where
MySQL Order By
MySQL Update
MySQL Delete

XML Expat Parser

AJAX Introduction
AJAX Suggest
AJAX Database
AJAX responseXML
AJAX Live Search

PHP Reference
PHP Array
PHP Calendar
PHP Date
PHP Directory
PHP Error
PHP Filesystem
PHP Filter
PHP Libxml
PHP Mail
PHP Math
PHP Misc
PHP String

PHP Quiz
PHP Quiz
PHP Exam

Selected Reading
Web Statistics
Web Glossary
Web Hosting
Web Quality

W3Schools Tutorials
W3Schools Forum

Helping W3Schools


PHP Include File

previous next

Server Side Includes (SSI) are used to create functions, headers, footers, or elements that will be reused on multiple pages.

Server Side Includes

You can insert the content of a file into a PHP file before the server executes it, with the include() or require() function. The two functions are identical in every way, except how they handle errors. The include() function generates a warning (but the script will continue execution) while the require() function generates a fatal error (and the script execution will stop after the error).

These two functions are used to create functions, headers, footers, or elements that can be reused on multiple pages.

This can save the developer a considerable amount of time. This means that you can create a standard header or menu file that you want all your web pages to include. When the header needs to be updated, you can only update this one include file, or when you add a new page to your site, you can simply change the menu file (instead of updating the links on all web pages).

The include() Function

The include() function takes all the text in a specified file and copies it into the file that uses the include function.

Example 1

Assume that you have a standard header file, called "header.php". To include the header file in a page, use the include() function, like this:

<?php include("header.php"); ?>
<h1>Welcome to my home page</h1>
<p>Some text</p>

Example 2

Now, let's assume we have a standard menu file that should be used on all pages (include files usually have a ".php" extension). Look at the "menu.php" file below:

<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/default.php">Home</a> |
<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/about.php">About Us</a> | 
<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/contact.php">Contact Us</a>

The three files, "default.php", "about.php", and "contact.php" should all include the "menu.php" file. Here is the code in "default.php":

<?php include("menu.php"); ?>
<h1>Welcome to my home page</h1>
<p>Some text</p>

If you look at the source code of the "default.php" in a browser, it will look something like this:

<a href="default.php">Home</a> |
<a href="about.php">About Us</a> | 
<a href="contact.php">Contact Us</a>
<h1>Welcome to my home page</h1>
<p>Some text</p>

And, of course, we would have to do the same thing for "about.php" and "contact.php". By using include files, you simply have to update the text in the "menu.php" file if you decide to rename or change the order of the links or add another web page to the site.

The require() Function

The require() function is identical to include(), except that it handles errors differently.

The include() function generates a warning (but the script will continue execution) while the require() function generates a fatal error (and the script execution will stop after the error).

If you include a file with the include() function and an error occurs, you might get an error message like the one below.

PHP code:


echo "Hello World!";


Error message:

Warning: include(wrongFile.php) [function.include]:
failed to open stream:
No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test.php on line 5
Warning: include() [function.include]:
Failed opening 'wrongFile.php' for inclusion
in C:\home\website\test.php on line 5
Hello World!

Notice that the echo statement is still executed! This is because a Warning does not stop the script execution.

Now, let's run the same example with the require() function.

PHP code:


echo "Hello World!";


Error message:

Warning: require(wrongFile.php) [function.require]:
failed to open stream:
No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test.php on line 5
Fatal error: require() [function.require]:
Failed opening required 'wrongFile.php'
in C:\home\website\test.php on line 5

The echo statement was not executed because the script execution stopped after the fatal error.

It is recommended to use the require() function instead of include(), because scripts should not continue executing if files are missing or misnamed.

previous next

The tools you need to build your web project!

Instant Demo

Ektron CMS400.NET Version 7.6 delivers all of the flexibility and features you need to deploy the Web site you want, quickly and efficiently.

learn more...




6 ways to take your site to the next level with Ektron:

Social Networking Create site stickiness through social networking. Keep it personal, relevant and interactive and they'll come back for more.
Open API Keep it open. Your site needs to be ready and able to connect to outside services. Ektron's open API gives you maximum flexibility.
Document Management Streamline content and document management. Users need to quickly and intuitively find and add information.
Content Authors Empower your content authors. Reduce IT bottlenecks by allowing business users to create and edit Web content and forms.
Taxonomy Climb to the top of search rankings. SEO tools, URL aliasing and eCommerce for your digital marketing strategy
Web 2.0 Tools Add powerful Web 2.0 tools like blogs, wikis, forums, geo-mapping, rating systems and RSS feeds easily.
See why there are 20,000+ Ektron integrations worldwide.
Request an INSTANT DEMO or download a FREE TRIAL today.

Name Registration
Domain Name
Registration & More!
$15 Domain Name
Save $20 / year!
Buy UK Domain Names
Register Domain Names
Cheap Domain Names
Cheap Web Hosting
Best Web Hosting
PHP MySQL Hosting
Top 10 Web Hosting
UK Reseller Hosting
Web Hosting
FREE Web Hosting
Website Templates
Flash Templates
Website Builder
Internet Business Opportunity
Custom Programming
FREE Trial or Demo
Web Content Manager
Forms,Web Alerts,RSS
Download XML editor
FREE Flash Website
FREE Web Templates
US Web Design Schools
HTML Certification
JavaScript Certification
XML Certification
PHP Certification
ASP Certification
Home HOME or Top of Page Validate   Validate   W3C-WAI level A conformance icon Printer Friendly  Printer Friendly

W3Schools is for training only. We do not warrant the correctness of its content. The risk from using it lies entirely with the user.
While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of use and privacy policy.
Copyright 1999-2009 by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.