A database most often contains one or more tables. Each table is identified
by a name (e.g. "Customers" or "Orders"). Tables contain records (rows) with
Below is an example of a table called "Persons":
The table above contains three records (one for each person) and five columns (P_Id, LastName, FirstName, Address, and City).
Most of the actions you need to perform on a database are done with SQL
The following SQL statement will select all the records in the "Persons"
In this tutorial we will teach you all about the different SQL statements.
Keep in Mind That...
- SQL is not case sensitive
Semicolon after SQL Statements?
Some database systems require a semicolon at the end of each SQL
Semicolon is the standard way to separate each SQL statement in database systems that allow more than one
SQL statement to be executed in the same call to the server.
We are using MS Access and SQL Server 2000 and we
do not have to put a semicolon after each SQL statement, but some database
programs force you to use it.
SQL DML and DDL
SQL can be divided into two parts: The Data Manipulation Language (DML) and
the Data Definition Language (DDL).
The query and update commands form the DML
part of SQL:
- SELECT - extracts data from a database
- UPDATE - updates data in a database
- DELETE - deletes data from a database
- INSERT INTO - inserts new data into a database
The DDL part of SQL permits database tables to be
created or deleted. It also define indexes (keys), specify links between tables,
and impose constraints between tables.
The most important DDL statements in SQL are:
- CREATE DATABASE - creates a new database
- ALTER DATABASE - modifies a database
- CREATE TABLE - creates a new table
- ALTER TABLE - modifies a table
- DROP TABLE - deletes a table
- CREATE INDEX - creates an index (search key)
- DROP INDEX - deletes an index
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